The Difference between the Certificate of Title versus Tax Declaration in the Philippines
CERTIFICATE OF TITLE
1. A document evidencing a right of ownership to a property
2. A document that attest to the fact that the person named is the owner of the property described therein subject to liens and encumbrances noted on it
3. It is registered with the Register of Deeds of the province or city where the land is located
4.The Certificate of Title is indefeasible and imprescriptible
5. All claims to the land are quieted upon issuance of this document
6. Recorded with the Register of Deeds of the municipality, city, or province where the land is located.
1. A document that show good sign of possession only in the concept of owner, not ownership
2. Not conclusive evidence of ownership to property, but only a proof of payment of realty taxes
3. Recorded with the Assessor’s Office of every municipality or city where the land is located
Ang pagmamay-ari ng lupa ay napapatunayan sa pamamagitan na hawak na titulo na kung tawagin ay ang Transfer Certificate of Title (TCT) o Condominium Certificate of Title (CCT). Ayon sa maraming Supreme Court decisions “the best proof of ownership of a piece of land is the Certificate of Title” (Halili vs. Court of Industrial Relations, 257 SCRA 174 ). Ito ang tinatawag na titulo ng lupa at wala nang iba pa.
Ang "tax declaration ay hindi titulo ng lupa. Maraming Supreme Court decision din ang nagsasabi na "Tax declarations and receipts are not conclusive evidence of ownership. At most, they constitute mere prima facie proof of ownership of the property for which taxes have been paid. In the absence of actual, public and adverse possession, the declaration of the land for tax purposes does not prove ownership." Ibig sabihin nito na ang tax declaration ay hindi siguradong ebidensiya ng pagmamay-ari ng lupa. While tax declarations and receipts are not conclusive evidence of ownership and do not prove title to the land.
Ang tax declaration ay pwedeng i-apply para maging titulo. May dalawang pamamaraan ng pagpaparehistro ng lupa, ito ay ang sumusunod:
1. Judicial Proceeding – kung saan kinakailangan ninyong magfile ng petisyon para sa registration sa korte.
2. Administrative Proceeding –ito ay pamamaraan kung saan mag-file ng application para sa “Homestead Patent” sa DENR at ang registration ng patent na ito ang magiging batayan para sa pag-isyu ng Original Certificate of Title alinsunod sa Commonwealth Act 141 o ang “THE PUBLIC LAND ACT”.